Saturday, July 24, 2021

science video describing the first of STED 9siv (nava-sivathika)

 ⚠️warning: In my opinion, the 3 min slideshow is pretty tame, but the animated GIF of a real time lapsed corpse at the bottom of the article may be diffficult for the faint of heart. Proceed at your own risk.


(3 min. video)

Five stages of body decomposition (short video, slideshow with pig pictures):


If you never noticed before, the first of the 9 cemetary contemplations outlines in the same chronological order of the 5 stages described above in the video link. Knowing the science of the decay helps you memorize this pali passage.

4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦

4👑☸ → STED → 9siv⚰️     





1min, squirrel in soil in forest: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UJ5tfdCYqeo


0.5min, armadillo in soil over 4 days: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uM54X3T9MZQ

Friday, July 23, 2021

how does one differentiate vedana from bodily vinnana such as a sensation of itchy or coldness?

 

Re: Vedana and (physical) body vinnana

Post by frank k » 

asahi wrote: Wed Jul 21, 2021 12:53 amPls explain how one differentiate vedana from bodily vinnana such as a sensation of itchy or coldness sense in body . Is it vedana or vinnana ?

:thanks:
MN 18 is a good sutta to see the hierarchy of where vinnana and vedana fit in to experience.
https://lucid24.org/mn/mn018/index.html

for the eye, it looks like this:
Cakkhu + rūpe + viññāṇaṃ → phasso → vedeti (vedanā) → sañjānāti → vitakketi → papañceti
eye + forms + consciousness → contact → feel → perceive → think → proliferate


For the body, it would be:
kaya/body + phottabbha/tactile sensations + vinnana -> contact (meeting of the first 3 elements) -> vedana (3 types pleasant, pain, neutral) -> sanna/perceptions -> vitakka/thinking

So the external sense stimuli being intrinsically cold or itchy causing, is part of phottabbha.
vinnana/consciousness is the internal experience of the raw sensory data that appears to the kaya body of that phottabbha.
contact is the meeting of the above 3 elements: internal experience, external sense stimuli, consciousness of it.

So for example, the Buddha in animitta samadhi can shut off some bodily pains, by means of phassa/contact partially shut off for parts of the body, or perhaps vinnana does not even register for those parts.
Similarly, going to the dentist, getting anaesthesia, nerves getting disbled for your mouth prevents the phassa/contact of pain vedana occurring.

So getting back to your original question, "cold sensation or itchy sensation of the body", bodily vinnana/consciousness has to occur first, as the raw sensory data that one internally comes into contact with.
vedana really wouldn't apply, since you didn't specify whether the cold or itchiness was pleasant, painful, or neutral.
sanna/perception is really where your mind first classifies the experience into the more nuanced aspects such as cold, itchy, etc.


Sunday, July 18, 2021

reborn in hell after correct practice of metta - how to understand this?

 



https://buddhism.stackexchange.com/questions/45408/to-hell-with-metta-how-to-understand-this/45415#45415


To hell with metta - how to understand this?


Quote from Aṅguttara Nikāya 4.125 Paṭhamamettāsutta:


Firstly, a person meditates spreading a heart full of metta (friendly kindness) love [...]


If they abide in that, are committed to it, and meditate on it often without losing it, when they die they’re reborn in the company of the gods of Brahmā’s Host. The lifespan of the gods of Brahma’s Host is one eon. An ordinary person stays there until the lifespan of those gods is spent, then they go to hell or the animal realm or the ghost realm. But a disciple of the Buddha stays there until the lifespan of those gods is spent, then they’re extinguished in that very life. This is the difference between an educated noble disciple and an uneducated ordinary person, that is, when there is a place of rebirth.


Why would an ordinary person, a worlding (puthujjano), go to hell after a lot of metta? I cannot believe this. My first guess was that this is probably meant to be a possibility, meaning lots of metta will not 100% prevent descending to lower realms forever. However, as I cannot read Pali, I compared other translations to modern languages, but none of them suggests the possibility. Instead they all seem to agree (at least by their grammar) on this direct chain of results:


(a lot of) Metta -> gods realm -> one of the lower realms


for a householder, at least. Disciples are better off. Grammatically, I fail to see any room left for interpretation as a possibility.


I must be misunderstanding something with this sutta. What is it? Wording, context, translatation, missing background?


frankk replies


Practicing metta correctly leads to rebirth in brahma realm, not to hell. What propels that brahma realm being to hell and animal realm after death, is not the practice of metta, but their previous karma. The sutta is not describing an absolute rule, it's just citing one possibility. For example, other suttas show beings who perform enormous meritorious karma have successive rebirths in many devas realms consecutively. The point of this sutta, is to show that for a skilled disciple of a buddha who is reborn in the Brahma realm, they are very likely to follow up that life with final nirvana at death, whereas a non Buddhist would be propelled to a future rebirth based on their accumulated past karmas, which is most likely to be a step down in rank (human, animals, hell, etc.) after their wholesome karma that led to that Brahma realm rebirth has been exhausted and not replenished with new wholesome karma.


The important general issue you're addressing, namely whether the pali source is actually this vague or imprecise in explanation of Dharma, is unfortunately fairly common. That is, the suttas being memorized teachings in an oral traditions, tend to be terse and not explicit and clear in all its implications when read in isolation. The full meaning has to be drawn out from reading many suttas in the entire collection and connecting the dots.




Saturday, July 10, 2021

Where in the canon does the Buddha teach about mindfulness?

 




Where in the canon does the Buddha teach about mindfulness?

https://buddhism.stackexchange.com/questions/45367/where-in-the-canon-does-the-buddha-teach-about-mindfulness/45373#45373


I wanted to know if someone could reference passages from the canon where the Buddha teaches about mindfulness. If such passages exist that is.


I was wondering about it because terms and explanations surrounding mindfulness can sound very modern and almost technical at times, depending on who explains it. Has mindfulness, as practiced in this modern age, any roots in the original teachings of the Buddha (as taught by Himself), or did this arise in more recent times? E.g. Vietnamese Monk Thich Nanh Hanh's school of mindfulness is an entire sect devoted to the practice of mindfulness. But is there any canonical, textual evidence? I couldn't find anything.


Frankk response:


There are 56 samyutta's in the SN, the 47'th SN is devoted to the topic of "mindfulness" (sati).


SN 47 Sati-'paṭṭhāna 🐘 Saṃyutta https://lucid24.org/sn/sn47/index.html (disclosure: my website, my translations are derived from B. Sujato)


The first 10 suttas especially are particularly important on the subject. But even reading various English translations of those 10 suttas, you can get quite a different idea of what the practice of sati means. With a bad translation it's easy to arrive at wrong interpretations of 'sati' that totally miss the mark.


So SN 47 should be your first stop for authoritative passages, other suttas are mentioned here, along with brief explanations: https://lucid24.org/sted/8aam/7sati/index.html


A great way to check if your understanding of 'sati' is correct, is with the fortress sutta simile, of AN 7.67. https://lucid24.org/an/an07/an07-0067/index.html


If it's a correct sati, then the wise general who guards the gate is going to be effective. If it's a wrong understanding of sati, like many modern "mindfulness" teachers teach, then the guard is going to let bad guys waltz right into the fortress.


Wednesday, July 7, 2021

Chronology of the Pali Canon

4👑☸ → misc.  

EBT Timeline: important dates related to EBT texts



External resources


 from dhammawheel forum:

Chronology of the Pali Canon

Post by Assaji » 

Hello Pali friends,

I would like to share some sources and thoughts on the chronology of the Pali Canon.

First, the research on chronology.

CHRONOLOGY OF THE PALI CANON
BY DR. BIMALA CHURN LAW

http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/bcl.htm" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE NIKĀYAS
Bhikkhu Thich Minh Thanh

http://www.viet.net/anson/ebud/mind/02_chap2.htm" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

STUDIES IN THE ORIGINS OF BUDDHISM
GOVIND CHANDRA PANDE

http://www.exoticindia.ru.com/book/deta ... sm-IDC304/" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

The Buddha Spoke Pāli
by Stefan Karpik

http://pali.nibbanam.com/kosalan.htm" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

How old is the Suttapitaka? The relative value of textual and epigraphical sources for the study of early Indian Buddhism.
by Alexander Wynne

http://www.ocbs.org/images/documents/Wynne.pdf" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

"Cooking the Buddhist Books: The Implications of the New Dating of the Buddha for the History of Early Indian Buddhism"
by Charles S. Prebish

http://blogs.dickinson.edu/buddhistethi ... rticle.pdf" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Recovering the Buddha's Message
R.F. Gombrich

http://www.scribd.com/doc/64865244/Reco ... h-TBF-1988" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
User avatar
Assaji
Posts: 1956
Joined: Thu Jan 01, 2009 11:24 am
Contact: 

Re: Chronology of the Pali Canon

Post by Assaji » 

Next, the epigraphic evidence.

The Hati-Gumpha inscription of Kharavela, dated the 160th year of the Maurya era (second century BCE) is written in a language which is very close to Pali:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hathigumpha_inscription" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
http://books.google.com.ua/books?id=QYx ... 9&lpg=PA19" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
http://books.google.com.ua/books?id=XdC ... A5&lpg=PA5" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
http://orissa.gov.in/e-magazine/Journal ... f/9-10.pdf" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
http://gujaratisbs.webs.com/Abstracts%2 ... 20More.pdf" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

The language of Girnar Asokan edicts is also very close to Pali.

Research of Dr Meena Talim:

http://www.exoticindia.ru.com/book/deta ... on-IHF006/" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
http://www.aryanbooks.co.in/product.asp?pro_id=65" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

The minor differences between the languages of these inscriptions and Pali are described on the pages 4-5 of K.R. Norman's work "The Pali Language and the Theravadin Tradition":

http://www.scribd.com/doc/61312930/The- ... orman-1983" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
User avatar
Assaji
Posts: 1956
Joined: Thu Jan 01, 2009 11:24 am
Contact: 

Re: Chronology of the Pali Canon

Post by Assaji » 

Now, as to the question of the stratification of Pali Canon by lexical and grammatical markers.

Rhys-Davids'es Pali-English dictionary mentions the words which are used only in the later texts:

ānubhāva
kilesa
bhāva
mālaka
yujjhati
yogin
rasmi
laddhi
vaḍḍhaki
vasabha
viññāṇaka
vimāna
vetulla

Sanskritized prefixes:

ava-
samabhi-

plural of "citta"
yuvassa

There's also a formidable work on the evolution of the Pali metre:

http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/T ... utline.htm" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Paul Kingsbury has done a great work on inducing the chronology through the grammatical markers:

Inducing a Chronology of the Pali Canon
Paul Kingsbury

http://ucrel.lancs.ac.uk/publications/C ... gsbury.pdf" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

The chronology of the Pali Canon: The case of the aorists
by Kingsbury, Paul

http://repository.upenn.edu/dissertations/AAI3073020/" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

The results of his work support the conclusions of Dr. Bimala Churn Law - the gradual evolution of sigmatic vs non-sigmatic aorists is evident from early to late texts, from Sutta-Nipata to Apadana.

So the thorough approach to chronological analysis of the Pali Canon, which will use grammatical, lexical and metrical markers, will make it possible to produce more accurate chronology.

It may even be possible to sort out the chronology of suttas by geographical locations, from the first Buddha's rainy season at Deer Park, to the Mahaparinibbana sutta.

http://stylomilo.com/files/mv/YMBASr1/D ... ddhism.doc" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Meta, Dmytro
Last edited by Assaji on Mon Jun 04, 2012 4:11 am, edited 1 time in total.


Saturday, July 3, 2021

What does it mean in Bhikkhu Bodhi's *Life of the Buddha* when he describes Maha Maya as being possessed of the five kāmaguṇa

 

member asked:

https://buddhism.stackexchange.com/questions/45284/what-does-it-mean-in-bhikkhu-bodhis-life-of-the-buddha-when-he-describes-maha/45294#45294


In Bhikkhu Nanamoli's The Life of the Buddha when describing the circumstances around his birth, Nanamoli writes


When the Bodhisatta had descended into his mother's womb, no thought of man associated with the five strands of sensual desires came to her at all, and she was inaccessible to any man with lustful mind.


When the Bodhisatta had descended into his mother's womb, she at the same time possessed the five strands of sensual desires; and being endowed and furnished with them, she was gratified in them.


I understand the first paragraph. And, I assume that by "the five strands of sensual desires" he's referring to the five kāmaguṇa in this answer.


The first paragraph seems to be portraying that this was a virgin conception (or, if not virgin, then it was a pregnancy that did not arise through coitus). However, I don't understand what is actually being said in the second paragraph quoted. Is it merely saying that, in addition to the purity of her being just described, she was herself exceptionally comely?


Another aspect of this that confuses me is what is meant by "she was gratified in them"?


frankk responds:

When the Bodhisatta had descended into his mother's womb, no thought of man associated with the five strands of sensual desires came to her at all, and she was inaccessible to any man with lustful mind.

It means after she was pregnant, while B. was in her womb, she did not have lustful thoughts, therefore she would not have had any sexual activity during that time of her pregnancy.

When the Bodhisatta had descended into his mother's womb, she at the same time possessed the five strands of sensual desires; and being endowed and furnished with them, she was gratified in them.

Here is every reference to 5kg kama guna in the suttas: https://lucid24.org/sted/5kg/index.html

You can see how it's used in both a negative sense, and positive sense. The negative sense is that one attached to 5kg, such as food, music, sex, will continue to rebirth in samasara infinitely. The positive sense, such as a king enjoying 5kg, or the devas enjoying 5kg, means that they're enjoying food, sex, music, etc., obtained in an ethical way that doesn't harm others.

Another aspect of this that confuses me is what is meant by "she was gratified in them"?

So it means the Buddha's mother, while pregnant, enjoyed food, music, etc., and probably didn't experience the typical pains of pregnancy.