Thursday, July 30, 2020

fun pali, AN 7.67 building on lesson of important vocabulary word 'karoti' (do)

important pali vocabulary word: karoti (do, did, d...

*Pari-k-kharoti [pariṣ+kṛ;] lit. to do all round, i. e. to make up, equip, adorn (cp. parikaroti); pp. parikkhata2 (q. v.); see also parikkhāra.  

First of all, kamma (action), karoti (do), san-khara (co-activities, fabrications, volitional formations) are all very closely related words, which all basically mean 'do', or 'make'. 

So this new word, pari-k-khāra, 
looks scary at first actually is composed of parts you already know. 
'pari' = all around
khāra = do, make. 
So 'equipment' is something you use to 'make' 'all around'. Makes sense right?

This passage is going to use pari-k-khāra in noun and adjective form.
The 'su' prefix as you recall means something along the lines of 'good'. 
so su-parikkhatam = 'well equipped'. 
nagara = fortress, 
nagara-parikkhārehi = fortress requisites/equipment. 

nagar-opama-suttaṃ (AN 7.67 - 🔗🔊)
♦ 67. “yato kho, bhikkhave, rañño paccantimaṃ nagaraṃ
“When ***, ******** (a) royal frontier fortress,
sattahi nagara-parikkhārehi su-parikkhataṃ hoti,
(with) seven fortress-equipment {is} well-equipped ****,
catunnañca āhārānaṃ ni-kāma-lābhī hoti
(then) four (types of) food {are} {obtained}-at-will,
a-kiccha-lābhī a-kasira-lābhī.
{obtained}-without-difficulty, {obtained}-without trouble.
idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, rañño paccantimaṃ nagaraṃ
This is-called, ********, (a) royal frontier fortress
a-karaṇīyaṃ bāhirehi pacc-atthikehi paccā-mittehi.
(that can’t be) un-done (by) external foes (or) duplicitious-allies.

all of the words I've highlighted are closely related to our super important vocabulary word 'karoti' (do, make). 
The 'a' prefix as you recall often is a negation. 
And the 'su' prefix means 'good'. 

another fun word is paccā-mittehi.
That looks like some scary completely new word, but actually once you learn the meaning of the prefix, it will make sense.

Paccāmitta [paccā=Sk. pratyak, adv.;+mitta, cp. Ep. Sk. pratyamitra] lit. "back -- friend," adversary, enemy

So paccā prefix means 'back'
mitta = friend (metta = friendliness, is derived from mitta)
So 'back friend' is an enemy.
B. Thanissaro translated that word as 'duplicitous-allies', I'm not sure it's that specific in the sutta, since the PED gives it a more general meaning of 'enemy', but 'duplicitous allies' sure sounds way more cool and also happens to be a literal translation of prefix and root. 

So to review:

Today's quick mini lesson we learned that karoti (do, make) happens frequently and we can guess the meaning of many words when we learn to recognize the various conjugated and declined forms it can take. 

Wednesday, July 29, 2020

Several days of fun pali lessons featuring AN 7.67 🏰 the fortress: one of the greatest suttas of all time

I've surely spent more than 10 hours alone on just rearranging the sutta text, expanding it into a complete form (filling in all peyyaala elisions) and massaging the pali to make it readable and easy to see the root and key words in the many compound words obscured by sandhi.

Yesterday I recorded it as a pali chant, 25 min. Slower than normal conversational speed, but faster than how most people chant.

Here are the links to the sutta text and audio.
Be sure to check out the partitioned version, to directly jump to interesting sections directly (corresponding to the sutta text table of contents)

AN 7.67 - 🔗🔊 🏰 study and memorize the key ideas. This is one of the best suttas in the EBT to help you understand exactly how each of the path factors in 8aam, 7sb, 37bp, interact with each other, what duties they share and overlap.

Main point of fun pali lessons for the next few days

Building on the simple concepts we've learned so far, you'll be able to recognize many words in this sutta, and learn some new ones easily because they're so similar to words you already know.

Tuesday, July 28, 2020

🐍🐊🐦🐕🐺🐒 fun pali vocabulary words from SN 35.247 Chap-pāṇak-opama sutta

audio pali chanting here:
🔗🔊 Chap-pāṇak-opama: 6 animals simile
SN 35.247 sutta text

Pali word for 'simile' is 'upama'

Let's start with the sutta title:

upama: (in cpds.) like; similar; having the qualities of. ()

Upama (adj.) [compar. -- superl. formation fr. upa, cp. Lat. summus fr. *(s)ub -- mo] "coming quite or nearly up to" i. e. like, similar, equal D i.239 (andha -- veṇ˚); M i.432 (taruṇ˚ a young looking fellow); A iv.11 udak˚ puggala a man like water); Pv i.11 (khett˚ like a well cultivated field; = sadisa PvA 7); PvA 2, 8 etc. -- Note. ūpama metri causa see ū˚ and cp. opamma & upamā.; 

But because of sandhi rules, 
You might see 'upama' in compound words as opama or opamma.

Cha-p-pāṇak-opama =  6 animal similes

You probably also recognize "pāṇa" from breath meditation 'ana-pana-sati' (inhale-exhale-sati).
There's probably a relationship there, animals have to breathe after all.

'opama' and 'upama' occurs often in the suttas. Here in the 3rd vagga of Majjhima Nikaya, most of the suttas here are based on similes. Look at the sutta titles carefully. I've added hyphens, but in the wild on your own in the vicious pali jungle, they're not so easy to spot. 

✴️MN 21 Kakacū-pama: the saw-simile: (🤖 16m): (simile of expert chariot driver) (simile of removing weeds) (story of maid testing queen’s anger) (5 ways of criticizing) (simile of bucket collecting all of earth) (simile of painting the sky) (simile of torching ganges river) (simile of catskin bag) (simile of saw)
✴️MN 22 Alagaddū-pama: snake-simile: (🤖 25m): Seems to be the same Arittha of SN 54.6, since both cover the theme of sensual pleasure not being obstruction. “Is it really true, Reverend Ariṭṭha, that you have such a harmful misconception: ‘As I understand the Buddha’s teachings, the acts that he says are obstructions are not really obstructions for the one who performs them’?” “Absolutely, reverends...”.
✴️MN 23 Vammika: Ant hill: (🤖 6m): A deva gives a riddle to a monk: “Sir, what is the ant-hill? What is the fuming by night and flaming by day? Who is the brahmin, and who the sage? What are the sword, the digging, the bar, the bullfrog, the forked path, the box, the tortoise, the axe and block, and the piece of flesh? And what is the dragon?”
✴️MN 24 Rathavinīta: 7 relay chariots (🤖 9m): There don't seem to be any other EBT suttas that explain what these 7 stages are. It seems you have to read the non-canonical Vism. to find out the details.
✴️MN 25 Nivāpa: Fodder: (🤖 11m) simile of Mara as deer hunter trapping with 5kg: ‘When these deer intrude on where I cast the bait, they’ll recklessly enjoy eating it. They’ll become indulgent, then they’ll become negligent, and then they’ll be vulnerable on account of this bait.’ And indeed, the first herd of deer intruded on where the trapper cast the bait and recklessly enjoyed eating it. They became indulgent, then they became negligent, and then they were vulnerable to the trapper on account of that bait.
✴️MN 26 Ariya-pariyesanā [Pāsarāsi]: noble-search (🤖 33m): And what is the noble search? It’s when someone who is themselves liable to be reborn, understanding the drawbacks in being liable to be reborn, seeks the unborn supreme sanctuary, nirvana. Themselves liable to grow old, fall sick, die, sorrow, and become corrupted, understanding the drawbacks in these things, they seek the unaging, unailing, undying, sorrowless, uncorrupted supreme sanctuary, nirvana.
✴️MN 27 Cūḷa-hatthi­pad-opama: short footprint simile (🤖 19m): “Suppose that a skilled elephant tracker were to enter an elephant wood. There he’d see a large elephant’s footprint, long and broad. So niṭṭhaṃ gaccheyya: ‘This must be a big bull elephant.’
✴️MN 28 Mahā-hatthi-pad-opama: large footprint simile (🤖 17m) : (mostly going into detail on 4 elements) “The footprints of all creatures that walk can fit inside an elephant’s footprint, so an elephant’s footprint is said to be the biggest of them all. In the same way, all skillful qualities can be included in the four noble truths.
✴️MN 29 Mahā-sāropama: larger discourse heartwood simile (🤖 9m): When they’ve gone forth they generate possessions, honor, and popularity. They’re happy with that, and they’ve got all they wished for. And they glorify themselves and put others down because of that:
✴️MN 30 Cūḷa-sāropama: shorter discourse heartwood simile (🤖 11m): “Suppose there was a person in need of heartwood. And while wandering in search of heartwood he’d come across a large tree standing with heartwood. But, passing over the heartwood, softwood, bark, and shoots, he’d cut off the branches and leaves and depart imagining they were heartwood. If a person with good eyesight saw him they’d say: ‘This gentleman doesn’t know what heartwood, softwood, bark, shoots, or branches and leaves are.

Fun words from SN 35.247

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso chappāṇake gahetvā nānāvisaye nānāgocare daḷhāya rajjuyā bandheyya.
Suppose a person was to catch six animals, with diverse territories and feeding grounds, and tie them up with a strong rope.
Ahiṃ gahetvā daḷhāya rajjuyā bandheyya.
🐍 They’d catch a snake,
Susumāraṃ gahetvā daḷhāya rajjuyā bandheyya.
🐊 a crocodile,
Pakkhiṃ gahetvā daḷhāya rajjuyā bandheyya.
🐦a bird,
Kukkuraṃ gahetvā daḷhāya rajjuyā bandheyya.
🐕 a dog,
Siṅgālaṃ gahetvā daḷhāya rajjuyā bandheyya.
🐺 a jackal,
Makkaṭaṃ gahetvā daḷhāya rajjuyā bandheyya.
🐒 and a monkey,

1. First look at this word that occurs so many times: bandheyya

bandha: bound; fetter; attachment; imprisonment. (m.)

Bandha (adj.) [cp. Vedic bandha, fr. bandh] 1. bond, fetter It 56 (abandho Mārassa, not a victim of M.) Nd1 328 (taṇhā˚, diṭṭhi˚); ThA 241. 

That word is almost a freebie. bound, bind, bandha look and sound very similar and probably have common roots.

2. 'kukkura' = dog. Probably that word is an onomatopoeia
the formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named (e.g. cuckoo, sizzle ).
Some dogs bark with sounds that sound like 'kukkura'. 

3. makkata = monkey: both words start with "m" and have "k" in the middle.

4. pakkhī: a bird; the winged one. (m.)
You might recognize that word from 
satta bodhi pakkhiya dhamma
Seven Buddha-fication wings (of) Dharma (7 sets with 37 factors)
B. Thanissaro has "wings to awakening". 

Or some translators prefer the much more boring "aids to enlightenment". 

Monday, July 27, 2020

fun pali lesson: building the matrix on the fly; AN 10.48

Sandra Bullock Almost Played Neo In The Matrix
One of the ways to get to know the sutta really well,  
is regularly recite it in different ways.
Slowly, conversational speed, fast, 
with chanting (musicality elements to aid in memorization),
in flat conversational monotone,
forwards, backwards, by random access (for example in AN 10.48 has a list of 10 dharmas, pick a random number between one and ten, and recite just that item of the sutta).

AN 10.48 Ten ☸Dharmas, pali chanting: I have a version "an10-48x" excerpt which is heavily elided, and combined with AN 5.57, into an efficient 1 minute chant that contains the essentials of both of those suttas.

Also while chanting be able to fill in elisions, or add elisions on the fly.

The big advantage of doing solo chanting, is you're not forced to keep pace with a group that's going too fast or too slow. You can add pauses wherever you want to chew on a point that needs more time to digest, or just because you enjoy savoring certain phrases: example: "Khina jati............ vusitam brahmacariyam".

Saturday, July 25, 2020

AN 6.20 fun pali lesson, Buddha makes a pun, intentional humor, marana leads to a-mata

5e - Deathless | GM Binder
The subject of this sutta, AN 6.20 is marana (death) sati (remembering)

In the sutta opening, the Buddha makes a pun, or a humorous play on the relationship between proper remembrance of death (death can come by many ways unexpectedly, so treat every moment of practice like your head is on fire, with urgency), and that doing the practice of marana-sati well results in a-mata (the deathless state, a synonym for nirvana).

maraṇas-sati kathaṃ bahulī-katā
{how is} death-remembering ****** abundantly-practiced,
mahap-phalā hoti mahā-nisaṃsā
{to be of} great-fruit **** (and) great-benefit,
(the) death-less-(it)-plunges-into,
(the) death-less-(it)-culminates?

As you recall, the prefix 'a' is a negation, and 'mata' is just a conjugated or declined form of 'marana'. 

Both of those words from sanskrit [fr. mṛ;] death.

maraṇa: death. (nt.)

Maraṇa (nt.) [fr. mṛ;] death, as ending this (visible) existence, physical death, in a narrower meaning than kālakiriyā; dying, in cpds. death. -- The customary stock definition of maraṇa runs; yaŋ tesaŋ tesaŋ sattānaŋ tamhā tamhā satta -- nikāyā cuti cavanatā bhedo antaradhānaŋ maccu maraṇaŋ kālakiriyā, khandhānaŋ bhedo, kaḷebarassa nikkhepo M i.49; Nd1 123, 124 (adds "jīvit' indriyass' upacchedo"). Cp. similar defns of birth and old age under jāti and jarā. -- S i.121; D iii.52, 111 sq., 135 sq., 146 sq., 235, 258 sq. Sn 32, 318, 426 sq., 575 sq., 742, 806; Nd2 254 (=maccu) Pug 60; Vbh 99 sq.; VbhA 100 (defn and exegesis in det., cp. Vism 502), 101 (var. kinds of, cp. Vism 229) 156 (lahuka), 157; DhA iii.434; PvA 5, 18, 54, 64, 76 96; Sdhp 292, 293. -- kāla˚; timely death (opp. akāla˚) khaṇika˚; sudden death Vism 229.
-- anta having death as its end (of jīvita) Dh 148 (cp DhA ii.366: maraṇa -- sankhāto antako). -- ânussati mindfulness of death Vism 197, 230 sq. (under 8 aspects) -- cetanā intention of death DhA i.20. -- dhamma subject to death PvA 41. -- pariyosana ending in death (of jīvita, life) DhA iii.111, 170. -- pāra "the other side of death," Np. at Nd1 154 (vv. ll. BB purāpuraŋ; SS parammukhaŋ). -- bhaya the fear of death J i.203 vi.398; Vbh 367. -- bhojana food given before death the last meal J i.197; ii.420. -- mañca death -- bed Vism 47, 549; ˚ka J iv.132. -- mukha the mouth of d. PvA 97 (or should we read ˚dukkha?). -- sati the thought (or mindfulness) of death, meditation on death SnA 54; DhA iii.171; PvA 61, 66. -- samaya the time of death VbhA 157 -- 159 (in var. conditions as regards paṭisandhi).


-ogadhā c
amata: ambrosia; the deathless state. (nt.)

Amata1 (nt.) [a + mata = mṛta pp. of mṛ;, Vedic amṛta = Gr. a) -- m(b)rot -- o & a)mbrosi/a; = Lat. im -- mort -- a(lis] 1. The drink of the gods, ambrosia, water of immortality, (cp BSk. amṛta -- varṣa "rain of Ambrosia" Jtm 221).

2. A general conception of a state of durability & non -- change a state of security i. e. where there is not any more rebirth or re -- death. So Bdhgh at KhA 180 (on Sn 225) "na jāyati na jīyati na mīyati ti amatan ti vuccati", or at DhA i.228 "ajātattā na jiyyati na miyyati tasmā amatan ti vuccati". -- Vin i.7 = M i.169 (apārutā tesaŋ amatassa dvārā); Vin i.39; D ii.39, 217, 241; S i.32 (= rāgadosamoha -- khayo), 193; iii.2 (˚ena abhisitta "sprinkled with A."); iv.94 (˚assa dātā), 370; v.402 (˚assa patti); A i.45 sq.; iii.451; iv.455; v.226 sq., 256 sq. (˚assa dātā); J i.4 (v.25); iv.378, 386; v.456 (˚mahā -- nibbāna); Sn 204 225, 228 (= nibbāna KhA 185); Th 1, 310 (= agada antidote); It 46 = 62 (as dhātu), 80 (˚assa dvāra); Dh 114, 374 (= amata -- mahā -- nibbāna DhA iv.110); Miln 258 (˚dhura savanûpaga), 319 (agado amataŋ & nibbānaŋ amataŋ), 336 (amatena lokaŋ abhisiñci Bhagavā), 346 (dhamm;ɔ âmataŋ); DA i.217 (˚nibbāna); DhA i.87 (˚ŋ pāyeti); Dāvs ii.34; v.31; Sdhp 1, 209, 530, 571.
-- ogadha diving into the ambrosia (of Nibbāna) S v. 41, 54, 181, 220, 232; A iii.79, 304; iv.46 sq., 317 387; v.105 sq.; Sn 635; Th 1, 179, 748; Dh 411 ( amataŋ nibbānaŋ ogahetvā DhA iv.186); Vv 5020. -- osadha the medicine of Ambrosia, ambrosial medicine Miln 247 -- gāmin going or leading to the ambrosia (of Nibbāna S i.123; iv.370; v.8; A iii.329; Th 2, 222. -- dasa one who sees Amata or Nibbāna Th 1, 336. -- dundubhi the drum of the Immortal (Nibbāna) M i.171 = Vin i.8 (has ˚dudrabhi). -- dvāra the door to Nibbāna M i.353; S i. 137 = Vin i.5; S ii.43, 45, 58, 80; A v.346. -- dhātu the element of Ambrosia or Nibbāna A iii.356. -- patta having attained to Ambrosia A iv.455. -- pada the region or place of Ambrosia S i.212 ("Bourne Ambrosial" trsln. p. 274); ii.280; Dh 21 (= amatassa adhigama -- vupāyo vuttaŋ hoti DhA i.228). -- phala ambrosial fruit S i.173 = Sn 80. -- magga the path to Ambrosia DhA i.94.



On a related note

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I'm going to be posting daily short little pali mini lessons just about every day, for another month or so before taking a break. 

Rather than announce daily posts on internet discussion forums, like I've been doing, those of you are are interested can check the blog daily, or subscribe by email or RSS. Info on how to do that here:

contact info, response to blog comments, subscribe

Also, r/EarlyBuddhismTexts is the more appropriate place to discuss questions and comments on the pali passages for the mini lessons, rather than r/EarlyBuddhismMeditati that I've been using (because the request for the pali advice came from there originally).

important pali vocabulary word: pe. = peyyāla

In the pali suttas, you frequently see this abbreviation, "pe...".
Example from AN 5.28:
“Katamā ca, bhikkhave, ariyassa pañc-aṅgikassa sammā-samādhissa bhāvanā?
what **, ********, (is the) noble five-factored right-concentration development?
idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi ... pe ... paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
(… STED 1st Jhāna formula he enters in … )

pe = peyyāla

In practical terms, it means text has been elided, and should be replaced with well known formula, or a repetitive phrase (or large block of text) used in the previous section.

peyyāla c
peyyāla: an indication to show that a passage has been omitted. (nt.)

Peyyāla (nt.?) [a Māgadhism for pariyāya, so Kern, Toev. s. v. after Trenckner, cp. BSk. piyāla and peyāla MVastu iii.202, 219] repetition, succession, formula way of saying, phrase (=pariyāya 5) Vism 46 (˚mukha beginning of discourse), 351 (id. and bahu˚ -- tanti having many discourses or repetitions), 411 (˚pāḷi a row of successions or etceteras); VvA 117 (pāḷi˚ vasena "because of the successive Pāli text"). -- Very freq. in abridged form, where we would say "etc.," to indicate that a passage has be to repeated (either from preceding context, or to be supplied from memory, if well known) The literal meaning would be "here (follows) the formula (pariyāya)." We often find pa for pe, e. g A v.242, 270, 338, 339, 355; sometimes pa+pe combd e. g. S v.466. -- As pe is the first syllable of peyyāla so la is the last and is used in the same sense; the variance is according to predilection of certain MSS.; la is found e. g. S v.448, 267 sq.; or as v. l. of pe: A v.242, 243 354; or la+pe combd: S v.464, 466. -- On syllable pe Trenckner, Notes 66, says: "The sign of abridgment pe, or as it is written in Burmese copies, pa, means peyyāla which is not an imperative ʻ insert, fill up the gap, ʼ but a substantive, peyyālo or peyyālaŋ, signifying a phrase to be repeated over & over again. I consider it a popular corruption of the synonymous pariyāya, passing through *payyāya, with -- eyy -- for -- ayy -- , like seyyā, Sk. śayyā." See also Vin. Texts i.291; Oldenberg, K.Z. 35, 324.


Pariyāya [fr. pari+i, cp. Class. Sk. paryāya in all meanings, already Vedic in meaning of "formula," in liturgy, cp. below 4] lit. "going round" analysed by Bdhgh in 3 diff. meanings, viz. vāra (turn, course) desanā (instruction, presentation), and kāraṇa (cause reason, also case, matter), see DA i.36 and cp. Kindred Sayings i.320.

1. arrangement, disposition, in phrase ˚ŋ karoti to arrange D i.179 (trsln takes it literally "departure," i. e. going out of one's way, détour; or change of habit, see Dial i.245); M i.252, 326; iii.7 62; S i.142 (trsl. "make occasion" [for coming]). <-> 2. order, succession, turn, course (=vāra) D i.166 (˚bhatta i. e. feeding in turn or at regular intervals expld as vāra -- bhatta PugA 232); M i.78, 282, 481 S ii.51 sq.; A ii.206; J v.153 (=vāra); PvA 242 (aparā˚)

3. what goes on, way, habit, quality, property S i.146 (ceto˚; habits of mind, thoughts, but see also pariya); A v.160 (citta˚, see ceto).

4. discussion instruction, method (of teaching), discourse on ( -- ˚) representation of ( -- ˚) (=desanā); thus āditta˚ (of Vin i.34) DhA i.88; esp. in cpd. dhamma˚; disquisition on the Dhamma D i.46; ii.93; M i.83; iii.67; S ii.74 v.357; A iii.62; iv.166, 381; Sn p. 218; also in foll. vitakka˚ M i.122; deva˚ A iii.402 sq.; peta˚ PvA 92 cp. Vism 41 (˚kathā).

5. in Abhidhamma terminology specifically: pariyāyena, the mode of teaching in the Suttanta, ad hominem, discursively, applied method, illustrated discourse, figurative language as opposed to the abstract, general statements of Abhidhamma=nippariyāyena, nippariyāyato Vism 473 499; cp. DhsA 317 (figuratively).

6. mode, manner reason, cause, way (=kāraṇa) D i.185 (iminā ˚ena), 186 (id.); ii.339 (ayaŋ p. yena ˚ena); DA i.106 (tena tena ˚ena in some way or other); DhsA 366 (iminā ˚ena for this reason); esp. in phrase aneka -- pariyāyena in many (or various) ways Vin i.16, 45; D i.1 (cp. DA i.36), 174 M i.24; A i.56; Sn p. 15.

7. winding round (of a tree: branch), in doubtful reading at J vi.528 (see pariyā). -- See also nippariyāya

Thursday, July 23, 2020

important pali vocabulary word: karoti (do, did, doing, done, will do, should do)

Example: manasi karoti (literally a mind doing, usually translated as "paying attention")

Ko ca, bhikkhave,
“{And} what, monks, [is the]
āhāro an-uppannassa vā
nutriment (for) un-arisen
kāma-c-chandassa uppādāya,
sensual-desire's arising,
uppannassa vā kāma-c-chandassa
(and) arisen sensual-desire's
bhiyyo-bhāvāya vepullāya?
growth,-development (and) abundance?
Atthi, bhikkhave,
There-is, monks,
(the) beautful-sign.
Tattha a-yoniso-manasi-kāra-bahulī-kāro
(To) that-there, un-wise-mental-production-frequently-done,
ayam-āhāro an-uppannassa vā
is-the-nutriment (for) un-arisen
kāma-c-chandassa uppādāya,
sensual-desire's arising,
uppannassa vā kāma-c-chandassa
(and) arisen sensual-desire's
bhiyyo-bhāvāya vepullāya.
growth,-development (and) abundance.

Declaration of arahantship (katam karaniyam are 2 conjugated forms of 'karoti'/does)

karoti = present tense, (he) does.
katam = past tense, (he) did
karaniya = what should be done

Nibbindaṃ virajjati;
Disenchanted, (he) becomes-dispassionate.
virāgā vimuccati.
(Through) dispassion, (he) is-[fully]-released.
Vimuttasmiṃ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṃ hoti.
(With) full release, 'Fully released.' knowledge occurs.
‘Khīṇā jāti,
[He discerns that] 'Destroyed Birth,
vusitaṃ brahma-cariyaṃ,
fulfilled (the) holy-life,
kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ,
did (what) needed-to-be-done,
nā-(a)paraṃ itthattāyā’ti
Nothing-further (for) this-state-of-being.'"
(that) he-understands.’

Example from AN 7.67

ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave,
(he is) said to be
a disciple of the noble ones
a-karaṇīyo mārassa
(who can’t be) un-done (by) Māra,
a-karaṇīyo pāpimato.
(can’t be) un-done (by the) Evil One.
katamehi sattahi saddhammehi samannāgato hoti?
“Now, with which seven true-☸Dharmas is he endowed?    

Examples from AN 8.1

Bhagavā etadavoca:
The-blessed-one said this:
“Mettāya, bhikkhave, ceto-vimuttiyā
“Friendly-kindness ********* (from the) mind's-liberation,
āsevitāya bhāvitāya bahulī-katāya
cultivated, developed, abundantly-done,
aṭṭh-ā-nisaṃsā pāṭi-kaṅkhā.
[then these] eight-benefits (can be) expected.
... (verse section)
Sabbe ca pāṇe manas-ānu-kampī,
(towards) all ** creatures (with a) mind-continuously-compassionate,
Pahūtam-ariyo pa-karoti puññaṃ.
A-noble-one creates {abundant} merit.
bingo! there's "karoti" finally in that present tense.

Important lesson to take away

1. Find the hidden roots: 

When you're out in the pali jungle on your own, this is what you're going to see for the part I highlighted in AN 8.1 and broke down the compound words with hyphens:

bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya yānīkatāya vatthukatāya

Where's the 'karoti'/do? Don't be intimidated. Once you learn the basic roots and some of their common declined and conjugated variants, you'll be able to guess the meaning of many words.

fun pali lesson, AN 8.1, applying what we've learned so far

An excerpt from AN 8.1 will be shown, and the bolded and highlighted items will be things you should know from previous lessons.

 AN 8.1 - 🔗🔊 
1. Mettā-sutta
1. friendly-kindness-discourse
Evaṃ me sutaṃ—
Thus I heard.
ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati
One time the-blessed-one {was staying near} Sāvatthī,
Jeta-vane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.
(in) Jeta’s-Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery.
Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:
There the-blessed-one addressed the monks:
“Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ.
“Venerable sir,” they replied.
Bhagavā etadavoca:
The-blessed-one said  this:
avoca: he said. (1st. sing. (aor. of vac.))
“Mettāya, bhikkhave, ceto-vimuttiyā
“Friendly-kindness ********* (from the) mind's-liberation,
āsevitāya bhāvitāya bahulī-katāya
cultivated, developed, abundantly-done,
(su prefix = good) properly-implemented,
aṭṭh-ā-nisaṃsā pāṭi-kaṅkhā.
[then these] eight-benefits (can be) expected.
Katame aṭṭha?
What eight?
Sukhaṃ supati,
1. (su prefix = good) Pleasurably (you) sleep.
sukhaṃ paṭi-bujjhati,
2. (su prefix = good) Pleasurably (you) wake ('Buddha' verb form).
na pāpakaṃ supinaṃ passati,
3. No evil (in your) dreams (do you) see,
manussānaṃ piyo hoti,
4. (to) Humans, beloved (you) become.
a-manussānaṃ piyo hoti,
5. (to) Non-humans [such as earth spirits, yakkhas, demons], beloved (you) become.
devatā rakkhanti,
6. Deities protect (you).
nāssa aggi vā visaṃ vā satthaṃ vā kamati,
7. Neither fire nor poison nor blades ** enter [and harm you],
uttariṃ ap-paṭi-vijjhanto brahma-lok-ūpago hoti.
8. {Not having any} higher knowledge-penetrated, (in the) Brahma-world-(you will)-arise [in rebirth].



Yo ca mettaṃ bhāvayati,
(In) one who {develops} friendly-kindness,
ap-pamāṇaṃ paṭi-s-sato;
Without-limit, rememberful [of Dharma],
Tanū saṃyojanā honti,
weakened (the) fetters become,
passato upadhi-k-khayaṃ.
seeing attachments’-destruction.
Ekampi ce pāṇam-a-duṭṭha-citto,
{showing friendly-kindness to just} one creature-(with an)-un-hateful (du=bad)-mind
Mettāyati kusalī tena hoti;
{**********} {makes you a} you a good [person].
Sabbe ca pāṇe manas-ānu-kampī,
(towards) all ** creatures (with a) mind-continuously-compassionate,
Pahūtam-ariyo pa-karoti puññaṃ.
A-noble-one creates {abundant} merit.
bingo! there's "karoti" finally in that present tense.
Ye satta-saṇḍaṃ pathaviṃ vijetvā,
the seven-clusters (of) earth (having been) conquered,
Rājisayo yajamānā anupariyagā;
(the) royal-rulers traveled around sponsoring sacrifices—
Assa-medhaṃ purisa-medhaṃ,
horse-sacrifice, human-sacrifice,
Sammāpāsaṃ vājapeyyaṃ niraggaḷaṃ.
the sacrifices of the ‘stick-casting’, the ‘royal soma drinking’, and the ‘unbarred’.
Mettassa cittassa su-bhāvitassa,
[compared to] friendly-kindess (of a ) mind well-developed,
Kalampi te nānubhavanti soḷasiṃ;
[those sacrifices] are not worth a sixteenth (of that);
Canda-p-pabhā tāragaṇāva sabbe,
[compared to the] moon’s-luminosity, all the constellations of stars
Yathā na agghanti kalampi soḷasiṃ.
Are not worth (a) fractional sixteenth [portion of that].
Yo na hanti na ghāteti,
(If) you don’t kill nor encourage-others-to-kill,
na jināti na jāpaye;
don’t conquer nor encourage-others-to-conquer,
Mettaṃso sabba-bhūtānaṃ,
(with) friendly-kindness (for) all-sentient-beings,
veraṃ tassa na kenacī”ti.
enmity you (have for) no one.”

Wednesday, July 22, 2020

AN 8.1 metta sutta, "or" vs. "nor", is this a mistake from B. Bodhi and B. Sujato English translation?

My question is based on the differences between "or" and "nor".
As I understand it, "nor" means all of those clauses have to be met to satisfy the conditions, whereas "or" only needs to satisfy one of the conditions.

The verse in question, with pali + english (my translation, derived from B. Sujato's, not grammatically exact so I can have corresponding word for word close to fluent translation).

Yo na hanti na ghāteti,
(If) you don’t kill nor encourage-others-to-kill,
na jināti na jāpaye;
don’t conquer nor encourage-others-to-conquer,
Mettaṃso sabba-bhūtānaṃ,
(with) friendly-kindness (for) all-sentient-beings,
veraṃ tassa na kenacī”ti.
enmity ***** (you have for) no one.”

B. Bodhi and B. Sujato use "or" instead of "nor"

From the verse section near the end:

One who does not kill or enjoin killing,
who does not conquer or enjoin conquest,
one who has loving-kindness toward all beings1620
harbors no enmity toward anyone.

(b. sujato)
If you don’t kill or encourage others to kill,Yo na hanti na ghāteti,
don’t conquer or encourage others to conquer,na jināti na jāpaye;
with love for all sentient beings,Mettaṃso sabbabhūtānaṃ,
you’ll have no enmity for anyone.”veraṃ tassa na kenacī”ti.

which means...

That you only have to satisfy one condition to qualify for the conclusion of doing metta properly.

For example, I don't kill anyone (satisfies one of the 'or' clauses), but I encourage others to kill, so obviously I wouldn't qualify for being 'metta'. But because 'or' was used instead of 'nor', I would qualify as 'metta' because I met the one of the 'or' clause conditions. 

Am I understanding the difference between "or" and "nor" properly?
Is that distinction in the pali? (between 'or' and 'nor)?

Tuesday, July 21, 2020

pali what-cha-ma-callit (sandhi rules): example: bodhi and bojjhanga

Sandhi is a necessary evil that unfortunately makes it harder for pali novices break down compound words into their originals. 

Example of a sandhi in English:
"what you might call that"  = "whatchamacallit." (slang). 
"forget about it." = "fuggitaboutit." 

1. Example of a sandhi in Pali: 

bodhi (awakening) + anga (factor) = bojjhanga.

You might recognize 'anga' (factor) already from other words in your vocabulary.
Such as aryio atth-ang-iko magga = noble eight-factored path.

Bodhi is just a conjugated form of Buddha, which everyone knows is an awakenend/enlightened being.

So what looks like some alien new word, "bojjhanga", because of the sandhi rules, is actually made of words you probably already know. 

Bodhi1 (f.) [fr. budh, cp. Vedic bodhin -- manas having an attentive mind; RV v.75, 5; viii.82, 18] (supreme knowledge, enlightenment, the knowledge possessed by a Buddha (see also sambodhi & sammā -- sambodhi) M ;i.356; ii.95=D iii.237 (saddho hoti, saddahati Tathāgatassa bodhiŋ); D iii.159 (anuttaraŋ pappoti bodhiŋ) 165 (id.); S i.103, 196; v.197 sq.; A ii.66; VbhA 310 (def.). Bodhi consists of 7 elements called bojjhangā or sambojjhangā, and is attained by the accomplishment of the perfections called bodhi 

Buddha1 (adj.) [med. -- pass. pp. of bujjhati, cp. Epic Sk. buddha] (a) understood S i.35=60 (su -- dub -- buddha very difficult to understand). -- (b) having attained enlightenment, wise A iv.449; PvA 16 (buddh' ādayo) 60 (=ariya). Usually appld to the Bhagavant (Gotama)

Bujjhati [budh, y -- formation, corresp. to Sk. budhyate for the usual bodhate. The sense is that of a Med., but is also used as Act. with acc. of object, e. g. saccāni bujjhi he recognised the truths Vism 209. -- The Dhtp (414) and Dhtm (652) explain budh by "avagamane (understanding, see ogamana), Dhtm (242) also by "bodhane" (awakening). Bdhgh's expln of the meaning is "kilesa -- santāna -- niddāya uṭṭhahati cattāri ariyasaccāni paṭivijjhati Nibbānam eva sacchikaroti" DhsA 217, cp. trsln at Expos. 294 "to rise from the slumber of the continuum of the lower nature, or a penetrating the Ariyan Truths, or a realizing Nibbāna"] to be awake, to be enlightened in (acc.), to perceive, to know, recognise, understand D ii.249 S i.74, 198; Dh 136, 286; Th 1, 146; J iii.331; iv.49 425; Miln 165, 348 (pot. bujjheyya); Dpvs i.14 (with gen.) KhA 219 (so attho sukhaŋ b.). 3rd pl. bujjhare Th 2, 453; Bu ii.183. imper. bujjhassu Bu ii.183. <-> fut. bujjhissati Bu ii.65; aor. abujjhi Bu ii.211, and bujjhi J iv.425; Vism 209; pret. 3rd sg. abujjhatha Bu vii.22. -- ppr. bujjhamāna Sn 395; Bu vii.22 DhA i.93. -- pp. buddha (q. v.). -- Caus. I. bodheti (q. v.). -- Caus. II. bujjhāpeti to lead to knowledge or recognition J i.407. Two infinitives formed fr. bodh but belonging to budh are bodhuŋ J v.341, and boddhuŋ Th 1, 167.


buddha, bodhi, bujjhati, all based on the root word of waking up from sleep

(from AN 8.1, benefits of doing metta)
Sukhaṃ supati,
1. Pleasurably (you) sleep.
sukhaṃ paṭi-bujjhati,
2. Pleasurably (you) wake.
na pāpakaṃ supinaṃ passati,
3. No evil (in your) dreams (do you) see,

Also notice the relationship between the word for 'sleep' and 'dream': 

2. another example:  ajjhatta = adhi + atta

Ajjhatta (adj. -- n.) [cp. Sk. adhyātma, cp. attā], that which is personal, subjective, arises from within (in contrast to anything outside, objective or impersonal); as adv. & ˚interior, personal, inwardly 

Antonym (opposite meaning): 
(opp. ;bahiddhā bāhira etc outward, outwardly);

'adhi' is a common prefix. 
'atta' you already know as 'self'. an-atta = not-self.

So again, like with bojjhanga, ajjhatta is actually composed of parts you probably already know, but was obscured by the sandhi rules. 

Adhi [Vedic adhi; base of demonstr. pron. a˚ + suffix -- dhi, corresponding in form to Gr. e)/n -- qa "on this" = here, cp o(/qi where, in meaning equal to adv. of direction Gr. de/ (toward) = Ohg. zuo, E. to].
A. Prep. and pref. of direction & place: (a) as direction denoting a movement towards a definite end or goal up to, over, toward, to, on (see C 1 a). -- (b) as place where (prep. c. loc. or abs.) = on top of, above, over in; in addition to. Often simply deictic "here" (e. g. ajjhatta = adhi + ātman "this self here" (see C 1 b).

3. More details on how sandhi rules work in pali