'Viveka', Sanskrit dictionary
Primary meaning is ‘discrimination’.
(1) true knowledge,
(3) right judgement,
(4) the faculty of distinguishing and classifying things according to their real properties’.
Wikipedia (sanskrit dictionary entry 'viveka')
Viveka (Sanskrit: विवेक, romanized: viveka) is a Sanskrit and Pali term translated into English as discernment or discrimination. According to Rao and Paranjpe, viveka can be explained more fully as:
Sense of discrimination; wisdom; discrimination between the real and the unreal, between the self and the non-self, between the permanent and the impermanent; discriminative inquiry; right intuitive discrimination; ever present discrimination between the transient and the permanent.: 348
The Vivekachudamani is an eighth-century Sanskrit poem in dialogue form that addresses the development of viveka. Within the Vedanta tradition, there is also a concept of vichara which is one type of viveka.
(2022 July: I looked at several Sanskrit dictionary resources and they all echo the above, and none of them have 'seclusion' as a definition for 'viveka')
From Digital Pāḷi Dictionary
masc. seclusion; solitude; detachment; disengagement. [vi + √vic + *a]
masc. discrimination; understanding; true knowledge. [vi + √vic + *a]
PED (pāḷi english dictionary)
Viveka [from vi + vic] detachment, loneliness, separation, seclusion; "singleness" (of heart),
discrimination (of thought) D I 37, 182; III 222, 226, 283 = S IV 191 (°ninna citta); S I 2, 194; IV 365f.; V 6, 240f.; A I 53; III 329; IV 224; Vin IV 241; Snp 474, 772, 822, 851, 915, 1065; Nidd I 158, 222; Ja I 79; III 31; Dhs 160; Pp 59, 68; Nett 16, 50; As 164, 166; Thig-a 64; Pv-a 43; Saddh 471. — viveka is given as fivefold at Paṭis II 220f. and Vibh-a 316, cf. K.S. I 321 (Spk I 158 on S III 2, 8), viz. tadaṅga°, vikkhambhana°, samuccheda° paṭippassaddhi°, nissaraṇa°; as threefold at Vism 140, viz. kāya°, citta°, vikkhambhana°, i.e. physically, mentally, ethically; which division amounts to the same as that given at Nidd I 26 with kāya°, citta°, upadhi°, the latter equivalent to "Nibbāna." Cf. on term D.B. I 84. See also jhāna. Cf. pa°.
excerpt: Keren Arbel's book on Early Buddhist Meditation on 'viveka'
KN Iti 38 is a great example of viveka as 'discernment'.
Pavivekārāmā, bhikkhave, viharatha pavivekaratā.
|You too should relish seclusion and delight in it,|
Tesaṁ vo, bhikkhave, tumhākaṁ pavivekārāmānaṁ viharataṁ pavivekaratānaṁ eseva vitakko bahulaṁ samudācarissati:
|then this thought will often occur to you:|
‘kiṁ akusalaṁ, kiṁ appahīnaṁ, kiṁ pajahāmā’”ti.
|‘What is unskillful? What is not given up? What should I give up?’”|
Etamatthaṁ bhagavā avoca. Tatthetaṁ iti vuccati:
|That is what the Buddha said. On this it is said:|
AN 8.30 : link to nekkhama - 30.50.3 – (3. this Dharma is for those who judiciously-seclude [themselves from bad company and unskillful Dharmas])
‘Pavivittassāyaṃ, bhikkhave, dhammo, nāyaṃ dhammo saṅgaṇikārāmassā’ti, iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ, kiñcetaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ?
|‘this Dharma is for the judiciously-secluded, not those who enjoy company.’ That’s what I said, but why did I say it?|
Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno pavivittassa viharato bhavanti upasaṅkamitāro bhikkhū bhikkhuniyo upāsakā upāsikāyo rājāno rājamahāmattā titthiyā titthiyasāvakā.
|It’s for a monk who lives judicously-secluded. But monks, nuns, laymen, laywomen, rulers and their ministers, founders of religious sects, and their disciples go to visit them.|
Tatra bhikkhu vivekaninnena cittena vivekapoṇena vivekapabbhārena vivekaṭṭhena nekkhammābhiratena aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṃyuttaṃyeva kathaṃ kattā hoti.
|With a mind slanting, sloping, and inclining to judicious-seclusion, withdrawn, and loving renunciation, that monk invariably gives each of them a talk emphasizing the topic of dismissal.|
‘Pavivittassāyaṃ, bhikkhave, dhammo, nāyaṃ dhammo saṅgaṇikārāmassā’ti,
|‘this Dharma is for the judicously-secluded, not those who enjoy company.’|
iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ idametaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ. (3)
|That’s what I said, and this is why I said it.|