ariya savaka (noble one's disciple): one who is at the minimum a hearer/learner of Dharma teachings from a noble one (ariya). This interpretation works everywhere in the suttas if you plug that definition in.
* from AN 5.1 they have 3 of the 5 bala, with sati and samadhi removed and replaced with hiri and ottappa.
* SN 48.53 they are a trainee if they have at least faith in 4 noble truths, and that there are no other teachers whose teachings match or exceed the Buddha's in accuracy or harmony with truth of reality. They know (paññāya ca ativijjha passati.) that the 5 bala are the means to realize truth, but have not directly realized that result through meditation experience yet.
a-sekha (not a trainee, one who has completed training):
* SN 48.53 not being liable to rebirth, and they have direct experience with 5indriya resulting in the culimination of that.
Yaṅgatikāni yaṃparamāni yaṃphalāni yaṃpariyosānāni. Kāyena ca phusitvā viharati;
ariya savaka: noble one's disciple.
sekha: any serious monastic or lay person trying to attain full arahantship? Must be at least stream enterer? (B. Bodhi translates this as 'disciple in higher training')
my doubts about sekha being stream enterer
2nd type: trainee
Kathañcānanda, sekho hoti pāṭipado?
|"And how is one a person in training, someone following the way?|
Idhānanda, bhikkhuno cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati amanāpaṃ, uppajjati manāpāmanāpaṃ.
|There is the case where, when seeing a form with the eye, there arises in a monk what is agreeable, what is disagreeable, what is agreeable & disagreeable.|
So tena uppannena manāpena
|He feels horrified, humiliated, & disgusted with the arisen agreeable thing...|
uppannena manāpāmanāpena aṭṭīyati harāyati jigucchati.
|agreeable & disagreeable thing.|
Sotena saddaṃ sutvā … pe …
|"When hearing a sound with the ear...|
In the Suttas asekhas are arahants and sekhas are ariyasāvakas but not yet arahants. This can be seen from what's predicated of the two persons in various Suttas in the Indriya Samyutta, e.g., the Sekhasutta, SN 48:53
There is, however, another (much less common) sense of sekha, found in the Vinaya's third pātidesanīya rule:
I asked the question to Ven. Thanissaro
AT: (Ajahn Thanissaro)
(2. Does using noble view get you samatha and nirvana? )
Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako iti paṭisañcikkhati:
|Furthermore, a noble disciple reflects:|
‘imaṃ nu kho ahaṃ diṭṭhiṃ āsevanto bhāvento bahulīkaronto labhāmi paccattaṃ samathaṃ, labhāmi paccattaṃ nibbutin’ti?
|‘When I develop, cultivate, and make much of this view, do I personally gain serenity and quenching?’|
So evaṃ pajānāti:
‘imaṃ kho ahaṃ diṭṭhiṃ āsevanto bhāvento bahulīkaronto labhāmi paccattaṃ samathaṃ, labhāmi paccattaṃ nibbutin’ti.
|‘When I develop, cultivate, and make much of this view, I personally gain serenity and quenching.’|
Idamassa dutiyaṃ ñāṇaṃ adhigataṃ hoti ariyaṃ lokuttaraṃ asādhāraṇaṃ puthujjanehi. (2)
|This is their second knowledge …|
1) The standard lists of the characteristics of a stream enterer never
include concentration as one of the members of the list, even though SN
55:5 states that the stream consists of all eight factors of the noble
path, including right concentration, and MN 48 includes, as part of its
description of the stream enterer, enough tranquility to experience
The clue to understanding this discrepancy lies in AN 3:87, which
states that the stream enterer is wholly accomplished in virtue, but
only moderately accomplished in concentration and discernment. In other
words, just because the lists don’t include concentration doesn’t mean
that the stream enterer has no concentration at all. It just means that
it hasn’t been fully mastered. The stream enterer has tasted enough of
at least the first jhana to have gained an experience of unbinding. The
same can be assumed with the list in AN 5:1. It doesn’t give an
exhaustive list of the sekha’s characteristics, just five of the
prominent ones. When SN 48:53 states that the learner has seen, as they
have come to be, the four noble truths, that implies that he/she has
seen enough of all the factors of the noble eightfold path to have had
at least a glimpse of the third noble truth, like the stream enterer in
MN 48 who personally obtains serenity and unbinding.
2) The distinction between sekha and asekha with regard to the five
faculties as given in SN 48:53 is identical to the distinction between
the stream enterer and the arahant as given in SN 48:3 and SN 48:4.
These are probably the clearest passages showing that the sekha must be
at least a stream enterer.
With best wishes,