Thursday, March 21, 2019

V&V💭 &U🛆👁: anu-vitakka, anu-vicara, anu-upekkha : jhana factors that do vipassana

Here are all the suttas that mentions these 3 factors together V&V💭   and 🛆👁 Upekkha

vimuttāyatanasuttaṃ (AN 5.26)
paṭhamadhammavihārīsuttaṃ (AN 5.73)
dutiyadhammavihārīsuttaṃ (AN 5.74)
dutiyasaddhammasammosasuttaṃ (AN 5.155)
ānandasuttaṃ (AN 6.51), para. 4
phaggunasuttaṃ (AN 6.56), para. 14 ⇒
pacalāyamānasuttaṃ (AN 7.61), para. 3 ⇒
DN 33
DN 34


AN 5.26  V&V&U occur in #4, 

but also look at 1,2,3, and notice that samadhi and first jhana are closely involved in hearing Dhamma, teaching, speaking Dhamma to teach others, V&V thinking and Upekkha (equanimous observation) of Dhamma. This is why SN 36.11 it's said that speech ceases in first jhana. It's exactly this kind of context, and sets a boundary condition where the energy required to speak, vibrate vocal cords and flap lips energetically is too intensive to give a sufficient kaya-passaddhi to maintain a first jhana.
(hyperlinks here to click)
AN 5.26 (Concise version with ellisions)


AN 5.73: 

this is is clear that the samatha, V&V&U are all factors in the context of jhana
4. ♦ “puna caparaṃ, bhikkhu, bhikkhu
4. “Then there is the case where a monk
yathā-sutaṃ
takes the Dhamma as he has heard
yathā-pariyattaṃ dhammaṃ
& studied it
cetasā anu-vitakketi anu-vicāreti
and thinks about it, evaluates it,
manas-ān-upekkhati.
and examines it with his intellect.
so tehi dhamma-vitakkehi divasaṃ atināmeti,
He spends the day in Dhamma-thinking.
riñcati paṭisallānaṃ,
He neglects seclusion.
nānuyuñjati ajjhattaṃ ceto-samathaṃ.
He doesn’t commit himself to internal tranquility of awareness.
ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhu —
This is called
‘bhikkhu vitakka-bahulo,
a monk who is keen on thinking,
no dhammavihārī’”.
not one who dwells in the Dhamma.
...
...
anuyuñjati ajjhattaṃ cetosamathaṃ.
He commits himself to internal tranquility of awareness.
evaṃ kho, bhikkhu, bhikkhu dhammavihārī hoti.
This is called a monk who dwells in the Dhamma.
♦ “iti kho, bhikkhu, desito mayā pariyattibahulo, desito paññattibahulo, desito sajjhāyabahulo, desito vitakkabahulo, desito dhammavihārī.
“Now, monk, I have taught you the person who is keen on study, the one who is keen on description, the one who is keen on recitation, the one who is keen on thinking, and the one who dwells in the Dhamma.
yaṃ kho, bhikkhu VAR, satthārā karaṇīyaṃ sāvakānaṃ hitesinā anukampakena anukampaṃ upādāya, kataṃ vo taṃ mayā.
Whatever a teacher should do—seeking the welfare of his disciples, out of sympathy for them—that have I done for you.
etāni, bhikkhu, rukkhamūlāni,
Over there are the roots of trees;
etāni suññāgārāni.
over there, empty dwellings.
jhāyatha, bhikkhu, mā pamādattha,
Practice jhāna, monk. Don’t be heedless.
mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha.
Don’t later fall into regret.
ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī”ti.
This is our message to you.”


AN 5.74 (sequel to above)

explains the difference between V&V&U outside of four jhanas,
to the V&V&U within 4  jhanas (ceto-samatha).
Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhu, bhikkhu yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ cetasā anuvitakketi anuvicāreti manasānupekkhati, uttari cassa paññāya atthaṃ nappajānāti.
Furthermore, a monk thinks about and considers the teaching in their heart, examining it with the mind as they learned and memorized it. But they don’t understand the higher meaning.
Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhu: ‘bhikkhu vitakkabahulo, no dhammavihārī’.
That monk is called one who thinks a lot, not one who lives by the teaching.

Idha, bhikkhu, bhikkhu dhammaṃ pariyāpuṇāti—
Take a monk who memorizes the teaching—
suttaṃ, geyyaṃ, veyyākaraṇaṃ, gāthaṃ, udānaṃ, itivuttakaṃ, jātakaṃ, abbhutadhammaṃ, vedallaṃ;
statements, songs, discussions, verses, inspired sayings, legends, stories of past lives, amazing stories, and analyses.
uttari cassa paññāya atthaṃ pajānāti.
And they do understand the higher meaning.
Evaṃ kho, bhikkhu, bhikkhu dhammavihārī hoti.
That’s how a monk is one who lives by the teaching.


AN 5.155 not doing V&V&U leads to decline of Dhamma


Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhū yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ na cetasā anuvitakkenti anuvicārenti manasānupekkhanti.
Furthermore, the monks don’t think about and consider the teaching in their hearts, examining it with their minds as they learned and memorized it.
Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, pañcamo dhammo saddhammassa sammosāya antaradhānāya saṃvattati.
This is the fifth thing that leads to the decline and disappearance of the true teaching.



AN 6.51 again V&V&U in oral tradition learning context

this sutta gives nice detail of how learning and memorizing, finding teachers to ask right questions, works in the oral tradition. And makes it absolutely clear why V&V has to mean thinking and evaluation - not a frozen trance for first jhana. 
“Idhāvuso sāriputta, bhikkhu dhammaṃ pariyāpuṇāti—
“Reverend Sāriputta, take a monk who memorizes the teaching—
suttaṃ geyyaṃ veyyākaraṇaṃ gāthaṃ udānaṃ itivuttakaṃ jātakaṃ abbhutadhammaṃ vedallaṃ.
statements, songs, discussions, verses, inspired sayings, legends, stories of past lives, amazing stories, and analyses.
So yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ vitthārena paresaṃ deseti, yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ vitthārena paresaṃ vāceti, yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ vitthārena sajjhāyaṃ karoti, yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ cetasā anuvitakketi anuvicāreti manasānupekkhati.
Then, just as they learned and memorized it, they teach others in detail, make them recite in detail, practice reciting in detail, and think about and consider the teaching in their heart, examining it with the mind.

AN 6.56 jhana not explicitly mentioned, but...

do you seriously think V&V&U is occuring in ordinary thinking, outside of four jhanas, to attain arahantship?
(hyperlinks to click here)



AN 7.61 Doesn't explicitly mention 4 jhanas here, but...

Moggallana attained arahantship in 2 weeks time, not too long after meeting Buddha, is the poster child for the 4ip (iddhipada, basically synonymous of mastery of 4th jhana). This sutta is about ways to overcome drowsiness. Knowing all this about moggallana, when is ever not in 4th jhana quality of mind? When he's tired and needs sleep, or food coma.

AN 7.61 Pacalāyana

DN 33 same passage as AN 5.26

DN 33 basically is a giant sutta composed of smaller suttas including AN 5.26


DN 34

not sure where the V&V&U are, might be elided out of some editions

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