Tuesday, August 20, 2019

AN 4.233 what exactly is the relation between kamma, saṅkhārā?

AN 4.233

(my translation derived from b.sujato)

Katamañca, bhikkhave, kammaṃ kaṇhaṃ kaṇha-vipākaṃ?
And what are dark karmas with dark results?
Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco"
Here, monks, someone
sabyābajjhaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharoti,
with-hurtful, bodily-co-doings (he) does [a deed],
sabyābajjhaṃ vacī-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharoti,
with-hurtful, vocal-co-doings (he) does [a deed],
sabyābajjhaṃ mano-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharoti.
with-hurtful, mental-co-doings (he) does [a deed],

(b.bodhi trans.)

(1) “And what, bhikkhus, is dark kamma with dark result?
Here, someone  performs
an afflictive bodily volitional activity,
an afflictive verbal volitional activity,
an afflictive mental volitional activity.942
As a consequence, he is reborn in an afflictive world. When he is reborn in such a world, afflictive contacts touch him. Being touched by afflictive contacts, he feels afflictive feelings, exclusively painful, as in the case of hell beings. This is called dark kamma with dark result.


questions:

1. what exactly are those 3 sankharas (bodily, voice, mind)? If they're the same ones from MN 44, it would be strange that in breath and out breath would cause karmic consequence, or if unvocalized thoughts (vitakka & vicara) cause the same karma as vaci-carena (vocal conduct).

2. is citta sankhara the same as mano-sankhara?

3. looking at bodhi's translation, what is actually being 'performed' (abhi-sankharoti)?
Is the bodily-volitional-activity mean he just sets an intention to do a bodily action, such as hit someone. Or he actualizes the intention to hit someone, and actually hits someone?
Now the fact that the sutta shows kamma being done, being reborn in hell, must mean it wasn't just a volition or intention to do harm, he actually did harm with the body. But the pali abhi-san-kharoti, and kaya-sankhara, it's hard to actually read and understand what is happening.



full sutta below
♦ “katame ca, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā?
"And-what, monks, (are) fabrications?
tayo-me, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā —
(there are) three-of-these, **********, fabrications:
kāya-saṅkhāro,
bodily-fabrications,
vacī-saṅkhāro,
verbal-fabrications,
citta-saṅkhāro.
mental-fabrications,
ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā.
This (is) called, *********, fabrications.

233. Vitthārasutta
233. karmas in Detail
“Cattārimāni, bhikkhave, kammāni mayā sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā paveditāni.
“monks, I declare these four kinds of karmas, having realized them with my own insight.
Katamāni cattāri?
What four?
Atthi, bhikkhave, kammaṃ kaṇhaṃ kaṇha-vipākaṃ;
(1) There are dark karmas with dark results;
atthi, bhikkhave, kammaṃ sukkaṃ sukka-vipākaṃ;
(2) bright karmas with bright results;
atthi, bhikkhave, kammaṃ kaṇha-sukkaṃ kaṇha-sukka-vipākaṃ;
(3) dark and bright karmas with dark and bright results; and
atthi, bhikkhave, kammaṃ akaṇhaa-sukkaṃ akaṇhaa-sukka-vipākaṃ kammakkhayāya saṃvattati.
(4) neither dark nor bright karmas with neither dark nor bright results, which lead to the ending of karmas.
Katamañca, bhikkhave, kammaṃ kaṇhaṃ kaṇha-vipākaṃ?
And what are dark karmas with dark results?
Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco"
Here, monks, someone
sabyābajjhaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharoti,
with-hurtful, bodily-co-doings (he) does [a deed],
sabyābajjhaṃ vacī-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharoti,
with-hurtful, vocal-co-doings (he) does [a deed],
sabyābajjhaṃ mano-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharoti.
with-hurtful, mental-co-doings (he) does [a deed],
So sabyābajjhaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharitvā, sabyābajjhaṃ vacī-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharitvā, sabyābajjhaṃ mano-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharitvā sabyābajjhaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati.
Having done these co-doings, they’re reborn in a hurtful world,
Tamenaṃ sabyābajjhaṃ lokaṃ upapannaṃ samānaṃ sabyābajjhā phassā phusanti.
where hurtful contacts touch them.
So sabyābajjhehi phassehi phuṭṭho samāno sabyābajjhaṃ vedanaṃ vediyati ekanta-dukkhaṃ, seyyathāpi sattā nerayikā.
Touched by hurtful contacts, they experience hurtful feelings that are exclusively painful—like the beings in hell.
Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, kammaṃ kaṇhaṃ kaṇha-vipākaṃ.
These are called dark karmas with dark results.
Katamañca, bhikkhave, kammaṃ sukkaṃ sukka-vipākaṃ?
And what are bright karmas with bright results?
Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco abyābajjhaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharoti, abyābajjhaṃ vacī-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharoti, abyābajjhaṃ mano-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharoti.
It’s when someone makes pleasing co-doings by way of body, speech, and mind.
So abyābajjhaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharitvā, abyābajjhaṃ vacī-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharitvā, abyābajjhaṃ mano-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharitvā abyābajjhaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati.
Having made these co-doings, they’re reborn in a pleasing world,
Tamenaṃ abyābajjhaṃ lokaṃ upapannaṃ samānaṃ abyābajjhā phassā phusanti.
where pleasing contacts touch them.
So abyābajjhehi phassehi phuṭṭho samāno abyābajjhaṃ vedanaṃ vediyati ekanta-sukhaṃ, seyyathāpi devā subhakiṇhā.
Touched by pleasing contacts, they experience pleasing feelings that are exclusively happy—like the gods replete with glory.
Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, kammaṃ sukkaṃ sukka-vipākaṃ.
These are called bright karmas with bright results.
Katamañca, bhikkhave, kammaṃ kaṇha-sukkaṃ kaṇha-sukka-vipākaṃ?
And what are dark and bright karmas with dark and bright results?
Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi kāya-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharoti, sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi vacī-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharoti, sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi mano-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharoti.
It’s when someone makes both hurtful and pleasing co-doings by way of body, speech, and mind.
So sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi kāya-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharitvā, sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi vacī-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharitvā, sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi mano-saṅkhāraṃ abhi-saṅkharitvā sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi lokaṃ upapajjati.
Having made these co-doings, they are reborn in a world that is both hurtful and pleasing,
Tamenaṃ sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi lokaṃ upapannaṃ samānaṃ sabyābajjhāpi abyābajjhāpi phassā phusanti.
where hurtful and pleasing contacts touch them.
So sabyābajjhehipi abyābajjhehipi phassehi phuṭṭho samāno sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi vedanaṃ vediyati vokiṇṇa-sukha-dukkhaṃ, seyyathāpi manussā ekacce ca devā ekacce ca vinipātikā.
Touched by both hurtful and pleasing contacts, they experience both hurtful and pleasing feelings that are a mixture of pleasure and pain—like humans, some gods, and some beings in the underworld.
Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, kammaṃ kaṇha-sukkaṃ kaṇha-sukka-vipākaṃ.
These are called dark and bright karmas with dark and bright results.
Katamañca, bhikkhave, kammaṃ akaṇhaa-sukkaṃ akaṇhaa-sukka-vipākaṃ kammakkhayāya saṃvattati?
And what are neither dark nor bright karmas with neither dark nor bright results, which lead to the ending of karmas?
Tatra, bhikkhave, yamidaṃ kammaṃ kaṇhaṃ kaṇha-vipākaṃ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā, yamidaṃ kammaṃ sukkaṃ sukka-vipākaṃ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā, yamidaṃ kammaṃ kaṇha-sukkaṃ kaṇha-sukka-vipākaṃ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā—
It’s the intention to give up dark karmas with dark results, bright karmas with bright results, and both dark and bright karmas with both dark and bright results.
idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, kammaṃ akaṇhaa-sukkaṃ akaṇhaa-sukka-vipākaṃ kammakkhayāya saṃvattati.
These are called neither dark nor bright karmas with neither dark nor bright results, which lead to the ending of karmas.
Imāni kho, bhikkhave, cattāri kammāni mayā sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā paveditānī”ti.
These are the four kinds of karmas that I declare, having realized them with my own insight.”

2 comments:

  1. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete

  2. 1) The sankhara (kaya, vaci, mano) in AN4.233 is different from MN44, SN12.2 (kaya, vaci citta). When sankhara is used for kamma (intentional action), the 3rd sankhara is always ‘mano’. When used as 2nd link of Dependent Origination (fabrication, activation, formation), the 3rd sankhara is always ‘citta’.

    Kaya sankhara in the context of kamma is deeds through bodily action. Kaya sankhara in Dependent Origination is in-and-out breathing. This is why an Arahant who does not create kamma anymore can still breathe. The sankhara of 2nd link of Dependent Origination of an Arahant is not conditioned by ignorance and craving, whereas for the rest of beings, they are conditioned by ignorance and craving.

    2) They are different. Mano sankhara refers to mental kamma (planning, scheming). Citta sankhara refers to perceptions and feelings.

    3) When one plans to hit someone, that’s “mano sankhara” or mental intention. When one actually hits someone (carry out the plan), that’s “kaya sankhara” or bodily intentional action. Note that this mano/kaya set which describes kamma (intention) is not the same as citta/kaya set that is used in MN44/SN12.2 (Dependent Origination).

    Please read the Conditioned Arising of Suffering article below by Ven Dhammavuddho. It focuses on clarifying the exact questions you asked, which is related to sankhara. I am very sure it will help clear your doubt as it has done for me.

    https://www.vbgnet.org/Articles/Conditioned-Arising-of-Suffering-2018.pdf

    ReplyDelete